[Review] Stars Without Number (Core Game) Pt. I: Spacer

EDIT: It goes without saying that the person initially responding to me in the comments section is not the real Kevin Crawford. My apologies for any inconvenience this may have caused. 

[Core game]
Stars Without Number – Core Edition (2010)
Kevin Crawford (Sine Nomine Publishing)

The year is 3200. Humanity is scattered like dust among the stars. The broken relics of a
former day litter the sky and men and women struggle to rebuild the glory of humanity’s
lost golden age.

A merry sunday to you all. Today we are starting FTL-februari in Earnest, with a multi-part review of Kevin Crawford’s science-fiction sandbox OSR masterpiece Stars Without Number. Unlike many of the games I review, I have actually played Stars Without Number for 3 (?) years and what must be 40-50 sessions by now. I have lost 2 characters to the base trickery of Captain Kaidan Khaynes and the terrible vengeance of Yusuf Al’Akkad. And I have watched that baseborn criminal suffer the draconic justice of the Republic of Haven (to be hanged upside down until one dies) with a smile on my face.

Stars Without Number is the king of science fiction OSR and the spiritual successor to Traveller, a 254-page game that not only encompasses the rules and setting but far more importantly, contains a huge set of tools to enable one to create one’s own sectors for sandbox play. Trade in your sword for a Laser pistol and your horse for a Frigate! We are going to space bitches!

The premise of Stars Without Number is that it is the year 3200, two five centuries after a terrifying psychic apocalypse known as the Scream laid waste to the technological golden age of yesteryear. The Terran Mandate, a civilization that covered most of the galaxy, collapses in darkness and horror as the psychic choirs that enable gateways through multidimensional space perish or go insane. The Core Worlds descend into barbarism. The Frontier Worlds, bereft of the infrastructure to use gateways and thus equipped with ships with their own spike drives manage to weather the storm, and some rebuild. It is now two five centuries after the Scream. Go!

SWN is very much a game in the vein of Traveller, more Space Country then Space Opera. It is more Firefly then Star Wars, more Dark Matter then Babylon 5 and more Star Trek TOS then Star trek Deep Space 9. While there are many possibilities, the default style appears to be a band of loveable, semi-criminal ragamuffins making their way across the galaxy doing some trade, picking over abandoned pre-Scream bases in search of elusive pre-tech relics and tussling with all manner of criminals, beliggerent space goverments, maltech cultists and hostile local fauna.

After a short opening on what the PCs begin to know, SWN opens by discussing just what it is and what it is not, laying a solid foundation so the GM may begin his space sandbox properly, with many a beginner’s flaw averted. This deliberation and intelligence shines through the entire work, and for all its sophistication and intricacy Crawford manages to deliver a game that is remarkably accessible to newbies. Several elements of sandbox play are immediately conveyed to the player before the first ability score is rolled. Most notable are an admonishment to co-operate with the GM (but within reason) and the existence of no-win scenarios and thus the vital importance of intelligence gathering in identifying these threats. On the GM side, there is an excellent section on just what areas of the book are vital to memorize and what areas need only a readthrough at first [1] and the overall very solid OSR advice to avoid getting stuck on a single plotline and be ready to ditch NPCs or adventure tracks if the PCs are not interested in them. Part of the genius of SWN is that it makes the daunting task of generating an entire sandbox space sector surprisingly easy, providing tools and advice every step of the way.

Characters

Character creation in SWN follows the tried and true OSR staples of 3d6 times 6 in order, with the ability to switch points between stats as long as no stat is raised above 13 or lowered below 8 (the threshold for positive and negative modifiers respectively). Modifiers in SWN are capped at 2 for a score of 18 or 3, any other stat above 13 or below 8 nets you a modifier of +1. In a gentlemanly gesture, SWN allows a player to replace one of his class’s primary ability scores with 14. Ability scores are straightforward and expressed as direct modifiers to skills, rolls or encumbrance in the manner of B/X.

Classes are broad, appropriate for a science fictional setting with worlds encompassing the full spectrum of technological development that is likely to give birth to hundreds if not thousands of specialized occupations. The Warrior class is used for all manner of fighting men and functions like the typical OSR fighter, with an added ability to ignore a single hit directed against him once per combat, giving it immense durability. The Expert is likely to see even more use and is essentially to go too class if you want your party to be equipped with the many many skills one requires to navigate the daunting world of Stars Without Number. The Expert essentially covers anything that isn’t a warrior, from spaceship navigators to cardsharks. Besides getting the most skill points, experts have the ability to reroll any one skill check each hour (of game time). The Psychic plays the dubious roll of space-wizard and has only its power points and six different disciplines to elevate it above the others. It is more then enough, and true to OSR form, the Psychic is by far the most potent class.

True to form, we are going to create a character and because the Psychic is the most complex it is also the most interesting one to pick to illustrate the character creation process.

Our stats are Str 11, Dex 15, Con 12, Int 16, Wis 14 and Cha 9. Online dicerollers are nonsense. Fortunately, we pick Psychic so we can increase one of our Prime Attributes to 14. In this case our Prime Attributes are Con and Wis, so we increase Con to 14, to create an absolute fucking superman. We shall name him…Ilkhon Vehk. Bald, gleaming grey eyes and a flat expression.

Ilkhon Vehk. 
Str 11 Dex 15 (+1) Con 14 (+1) Int 16 (+1) Wis 14 (+1) Cha 9

Next up in the character creation process we select our Background package. Background packages are collections of skills that represent where the character came from, and run the gamut from various Spacer professions to primitive Tribesmen. Skill tests are eminently simple: 2d6 + primary attribute modifier + ranks in the skill against a DC of 6 and 12. Combat works a little differently, we’ll deal with that later. The first time you pick a skill it starts at 0. We decide Ilkhon started his life as a baron from some regressed backwater planet, the Noble Background, netting us Combat/Primitive, Culture/World (our homeworld), Leadership and Persuade. The GM informs us our homeworld will be named Hamaravon.

After that we pick our class specific training package from among 8 alternatives. We are going for a Rogue Psychic, someone who has been trained outside of the few Psychic Academies by a mentor (those not trained in the use of psychic powers quickly die or go insane). We get Combat/Any (we pick Energy), Culture/Any, Persuade and Stealth. Since we already have Culture/World and raising it an extra point is of questionable use, we can pick another Culture skill. We can pick from Alien, Criminal, Spacer, any World or Traveller. Traveller can only be selected at character creation and can never be raised above 0, but it represents a background of travelling across the sector, allowing the character to use it on any World [2]. However, Criminal is more fun, and we cannot be a cunning criminal mastermind without criminal!

Ilkhon Vehk. 
Str 11 Dex 15 (+1) Con 14 (+1) Int 16 (+1) Wis 14 (+1) Cha 9

Skills: Combat/Primitive 0, Combat/Energy Weapons 0, Culture/Hamaravon 0, Culture/Criminal 0, Leadership 0, Persuade 1 [3] and Stealth 0

The GM generously allows us to start with maximum hit points i.e. (d4+1) 5. Everyone knows English, and we get one additional language per our Int modifier. We figure people on Hamaravon speak some sort of mixture of Bulgarian and Russian which we shall dub Hamaravonian and we add that to our languages spoken. We roll starting credits of 400 + 1d6 * 100 and end up with 500 starting credits. We will deal with that in the equipment section.

There is one more thing we have to figure out before Ilkhon can enter the field: Psionics

Psychic Powers.

Psionics, like other science-fictional elements in Stars Without Number, are fully integrated into the rest of the setting, the sign of a mature approach to universe building that makes the whole feel deep and coherent. Psionics started showing up only after humanity was exposed to meta-dimensional space [4] and formed the backbone of the now defunct Mandate Core Worlds. While there are some remnants of psychic technology still in widespread circulation, most of the knowledge and technological applications of psychics were lost in the Scream. The powers require no vocal or somatic components, only willpower. They are most reminiscent of the psychics from Perry Rhodan or the espers from Star Trek TOS.

Psychic powers are divided into 6 Disciplines: Biopsionics, Metapsionics, Precognition, Telekineses, Telepathy and Teleportation. There is one power in each discipline from level 1 to level 9. Each use consumes Psi points. There is an awesome subsystem [5] where psychics can elect to permanently sacrifice a number of psi points equal to the activation cost of a certain power in order to master that discipline, allowing them to use it at will. There is a great last resort system also: If you are out of Psi-points, Psychics can elect to “torch,” meaning they can elect to manifest powers at the risk of causing permanent damage to their neural pathways. Each round of torching means you have a 80% chance to lose either a point of Con or Wis. Stars then proves its greatness by throwing in a little detail, psychics that drop below 3 Wis go “feral” (below 3 Con they simply perish) and fall under the control of the GM, but after that they can manifest their powers AT WILL AT NO COST! Awesome.

Each pychic picks one primary discipline to master. Every time he levels up he gains a power in this discipline, and may select a power from another discipline. Since it is not possible to skip powers in the tree, it can be more advantageous to pick one or two powers in a secondary discipline before moving on to the next one. Its a very clear and concise system with a lot of option and depth, but there are a few criticisms I can level against the powers themselves:

There is an element of feat-tax (or psi-tax) here [6]. Since SWN has almost no short term healing options besides the rare pre-tech Integrity Stimms, access to the level 2 biopsionic power Psychic Succor which heals 1d8 + the psychics level in hit points on touch is a HUGE advantage. Conversely, the metapsionics discipline really only becomes useful with two or three additional psychics in the team and is weak compared with the others.

But Prince! you clamour. Why would anyone ever not master Psychic Succour and thus have access to unlimited healing?!? A wise question. Crawford adds an additional balancing mechanism to the psychometabolic discipline. Accelerated healing (and other metabolic boosters like the ones from certain pre-tech stimms) strains the body, causing System Strain. If you take more strain then you have Con points you can no longer receive any healing. System Strain recovers at the rate of 24 hours per point. Potential abuse is averted with an elegant mechanism that is both easy to remember and makes sense in the context of the game. Expect this a lot.

Psychometabolism is one of the most useful disciplines by far, providing all manner of healing powers at low level and the ability to avert death, shapeshift or even regenerate from a pile of ash at the highest echelons. Metapsionics allows you to combine and exchange PPs with other psychics, cannibalise their hit points for more psy points and influence how hard it is to manifest certain powers. Precognition, Telekinesis, Teleportation and Telepathy you can probably figure out on your own.

Our Psychic shall pick the awesome Precognition as a primary discipline and will compound that with an additional power from the Psychometabolic discipline. We can now manifest Biostasis, allowing us to stabilize anyone on zero hit points without having to resort to a Lazarus Patch (the SWN go-too field consumable for when your fellows kick the bucket [7]). He also gains access to the 1st level precognitive power Omen, which functions a little bit like augury and allows the character to predict the effect of a single action (to within 1 minute afterwards).

Join me for Part II, where we shall cover the brobdignagian Equipment Section, get Ilkhon some space gear, masturbate to the starship creation rules, and fall asleep during Star ship combat.

TBC!

[1] We shall call this meta-content, which makes SWN so easy to use
[2] SWN is rife with intelligent little subsystems like this, showcasing its extensive playtesting
[3] We have persuade twice so we can add the ranks
[4] I.e Hyperspace
[5] I call it a subsystem because the psychic class would have worked without it, it just adds more depth an character option
[6] Feat tax was a term used for some of the feats in 3e or 4e, which were so superior to any other character option that it was virtually essential to select them for any class. They became, in effect, a tax rather then a deliberate choice.
[7] Our team would go through Lazarus Patches faster then field rations. Lazarus patches are the most essential kit your PC can have. Always have everyone carry one,  so anyone with basic field medical skills can revive them. The check difficulty tends to increase as the number of rounds goes up, with 6 rounds being the maximum.

EDIT: A kind reader points out my scholastic error. It is five centuries after the Scream, not two, which gives Humanity a little bit more of a plausible window to recover and rebuild from total civilization collapse.


40 thoughts on “[Review] Stars Without Number (Core Game) Pt. I: Spacer

  1. I LOVE SWN, but not really for the rules. I think that Crawford does as well as humanly possible with OSR + Traveller. But I also think that OSR isn’t really the right approach for this material. My primary reason is that the D&D chassis is class-and-level, but SWN bolts on a robust skill system, which is traditionally an awkward fit. But my other reason has to do with the fact that the biggest advantage of OSR is that it makes it easy to use content from many different games and third-party products. But this advantage only really applies to fantasy settings, not sci-fi.

    Otherwise, I really love the SWN setting and content generation tables. I think it’s a great game for the GM and a mediocre one for the players. Fortunately, the best aspects of SWN can be completely ported to pretty much any game system.

    However, I understand that OSR has a big advantage from a publisher’s POV, which is that it makes the material accessible to a wider audience.

    Like

    1. Just to clarify, when I say “OSR” here, I am referring strictly to games with D&D-based mechanics. By a totally legit broader definition, Traveller is definitely OSR.

      Like

    2. I find the OSR skill system works reasonably well, it feels like an intermediary stage between a full on class system and a classless system ah la Vampire or something. The open-ended customizable nature of the classes rocks. I’ll agree that Sci Fi is so tonally different it doesn’t really have a Generic setting like fantasy has, and the technological assumptions making porting challenging.

      I will of course be looking at the setting and the system before diving into the sandbox rules. Oh man I am pumped!

      Like

      1. Yeah, now that I got that misgiving out of the way, I’m pretty psyched to see this here, too. If I had my druthers (a rare occurrence, admittedly), I’d love to run a campaign of SWN with a sneaky inclusion of Silent Legions.

        That reminds me…are you going to explore any of the 1st edition SWN supplements? I’m particularly enamored with Suns of Gold (merchanting) and Darkness Visible (espionaging). What about the new Codex of the Black Sun? I picked it up but I’m yet to read through it.

        Liked by 1 person

      2. I’m right there with you. SWN with Silent Legions elements is the goal I’ve had whenever I run a Stars game. It just seems like Sci-fi lends itself to horror moreso than strictly fantasy, but maybe that’s just my tastes

        Like

      3. Suns of Gold sounds like the system I am most eager to get into since the Space Merchant shit seems like a no-brainer way of running the game to me. We used Darkness visible in our last SWN campaign so I know what I’d be getting a whiff off. Codex Black Sun sounds weird, so probably. More SWN is definitely on the menu.

        Like

  2. “If I had my druthers (a rare occurrence, admittedly), I’d love to run a campaign of SWN with a sneaky inclusion of Silent Legions.”

    Thats pretty much what I am preparing right now for my group. They wanted to try a scifi-system with a strong horror element … Alien, Pandorum, Event Horizon … phases of Horror intersected with exploration and space battles.
    I will be using SWN 2ed and slap on a modified madness system from silent legions.

    As we brainstormed and build our own setting, I will also have to houserule and add a few things.
    Biggest one will be shields for spaceships and a slightly modified FTL-travelsystem.

    Like

    1. “They wanted to try a scifi-system with a strong horror element … Alien, Pandorum, Event Horizon … phases of Horror intersected with exploration and space battles.”

      Boundless possibilities, there. If there was support for psychic powers, I’d consider using Mothership as the rules for a campaign like that. I’m running a group through Dead Planet, and I’ve been very impressed with their elegance. At the very least, take a look at Dead Planet as an adventure for your space horror campaign.

      Like

      1. If it was my decision alone we would play mothership on the dead planet 😉
        One of my players wanted SWN from the get go, the others wanted to play in a setting we designed together … so SWN with it’s Sandbox toolkits was a no-brainer there.

        I read dead planet and was impressed as hell. I won’t cram it into my campaign no matter what … but if the possibility arises … well … the dead planet awaits then 😉

        Liked by 1 person

  3. Ah, SWN! Good job as usual. A little nitpick – 3200 is five hundred years after the Scream, not two. Other Dust is set 200 years after the Scream (poor Earth!).
    And why first edition, not Revised? It’s much more streamlined and starship combat is waaaaaaaay better.

    Like

    1. Yeah sorry, the Scream takes place in 2665 and propagates through the universe in a few seconds, so you are right, thanks for the correction.

      It seems fitting to cover 1e first since its the edition we played for years upon years. My GM would never touch the new edition and found it unneccesary, so I cover this one first. I might be interested in doing a single page comparison, I don’t like the art in Revised, it turns the game into a sort of Mass Effect, I dunno, its too slick and mechanistic, very 2000s. I like my shit a little more grimy, stylistic or retro.

      Like

  4. The last time I ran a sci-fi campaign was around ten years ago. I used Mongoose Traveller as the system, and the campaign only lasted for a few months, because two of the crucial players got kicked out from university and I felt uninspired to continue. Lately I’ve been thinking a lot about running a sci-fi sandbox again. My problem besides the lack of time is that I don’t feel qualified to run sci-fi. I’m not well-versed enough in the genre, or science, and it feels wrong to lean too much into the “fiction” in science-fiction, and handwave my way out of questions like I often do in fantasy to explain stuff. Hopefully by the time I get to the point of starting a campaign I will leave this urge to be more credible and realistic behind, because other than a single smartass in the group none of my players would care – they only need a dose of spaceships, lasers, and aliens.

    I haven’t decided on the system yet, though. I like Mongoose Traveller for its robust tools, but I don’t have patience for the character creation mini-game, and I don’t like the lack of character advancement. I had high hopes for the new Alternity, which is a nice generic sci-fi rpg, but it lacks tools badly and has a piss poor initiative system. SWN at first glance seemed a bit too “D&D in space”, but the more I hear about it the more I like it – it seems to be a good middle ground between my original candidates, kind of a “best of both worlds”. I’m eagerly waiting for the next part of your review.

    Like

    1. [Sci-Fi qualification]

      I kind of see where you’d get that problem but like you already point out solution is always “you need as much knowledge as your player base expects.” I don’t run into the problem so much because of a science-heavy high school education along with an obsessive collection of hard science fiction authors so I am generally the most well versed physics guy in the room. If you don’t feel secure, just extrapolate on modern times, add some lasers and don’t try anything too bizarre or stupid like infinite energy or similar bafflegarble.

      I like SWN because it puts some effort into explaining some of its design decisions and thus its traveller-esque setting makes sense. Every avenue of technology that should have been developed but is not in SWN is given a plausible explanation. The instability of Unbraked AIs, the existence of planet covering Nuke Snuffer projectors (now you know why I think of Perry Rhodan) and the use of Quantum ECM and Meta-dimensional shifting to explain why fights do not take place at 5 AU and consist of launching your self-aware missiles as soon as you catch a thermal bloom and then accelerating away at 10 G for a month as you will killed by the bullets of the dead. Realistic space combat it is not. Or as Skyward Steel puts it; You Will Die in Silence and Light

      Liked by 1 person

      1. [Readiness for sci-fi]

        It all depends on tone. I think you can go with Melan’s suggestion of soft sci-fi, which SWN and a number of other games would fully support. The truth is that even the biggest science and sci-fi nerd is wrong about what the future will bring, so why worry too much? Sometimes it is easier to head into the far future, where you can throw in a few intervening apocalypses and thus explain why magic-like technology can sit alongside 19th century steam engines.

        I have the same concern when it comes to running historical fiction. That’s one area that your players can easily know more about your setting than you do. But I’ve received the same recommendation about running historical fiction that I gave you about sci-fi, which is namely just don’t worry too much about realism.

        [Tonal weakness of SWN]

        That’s a bit of a strange criticism – I think SWN should be judged according to the genre it falls within, not the genre it chooses not to be. If it was trying to be a retro-future setting, then I would agree with your complaint.

        Like

    2. I believe what you need for that malaise is Jack Vance’s Demon Princes, which teaches you how to not give a hoot about hard science and technological advancement*, treat spaceships as fancy yachts, and focus your efforts on coming up with screwed up societies where you can have space adventures. It is, also, my favourite genre book ever.

      WRT SWN, it is well suited for what you seem to have in mind. The sssspace D&D aspect is less grating than initially suspected, while it comes with a lot of quality-of-life polish, and robust world generation tools. It is a bit like Traveller, but for the less autistic.

      _______________
      * Where Asimov’s universe has the Foundation, a coterie of progressive meddlers, Vance’s Oikumene has the Institute, a bunch of aristocratic regressives who do their best to restrain human advancement, and, as their endgame, buy up enough shares in the Jarnell Corporation to halt the production of the Intersplit, getting rid of FTL travel so every world can henceforth live forever in a pastoral kinda-18th century existence.

      In my mind, SWN’s main tonal weakness is where modern tech seeps in, and you have powerful computers and cybernetics. It should work better as a 60s/70s retro-futuristic deal, with star flight patterns calculated in pencil, and the few computers occupying a smaller factory building.

      Liked by 2 people

      1. [Demon Princes]

        Hell Yeah! Who can game without awesome lore details like the Master Poisoners of Sarvkovey? I think Melan’s criticism rings partially true because the fictional works that most exemplify the spirit of the game seem to be centered around more soft-science fare. I find civilizations in the vein of Vance’s Gaean Reach or Planets of Hats ah la TOS, Poul Anderson’s The Sharing of Flesh or even Blish’s Cities in Flight to be more stimulating then comparatively boring extrapolations of modern cultures with mega-corporations, politics and internet. I think the somewhat vague characterisation lends itself to many playstyles but I will agree the shiniest bits are only tarnished by the inclusion of pseudo-hard science.

        [autistic traveller]

        You Will Die in Autism and Light.

        [Soft Science]

        I think soft sf ages much better then hard sf because the technology is never really explained. What I love about Demon Princes is that generally the societal implications and consequences of the tech are very well explored and tend to make sense. The worst sf is a modern civilisation with gravity cars and laser guns.

        [SF-readiness]

        I think its all about plausibility, versimilitude and immersion. If your setting seems too arbitrary or nonsensical your players wont buy into it. That’s why most settings have to at least grapple with questions of modern technology unless they are so far in the future literally anything could have happened (but those settings too, tend to feel disconnected if not carefully managed).

        Liked by 1 person

      2. OK, now you guys have me interested in Vance’s Demon Princes.

        [Soft Fi]

        Agreed that it ages much better. And there are definitely ways of doing it right and doing it wrong. Star Trek, for instance, schizophrenically hops back and forth between half-assed soft sci-fi and absolutely garbage hard sci-fi. Meanwhile, overly hard sci-fi misses the mark when it tries to look more than ten or twenty years in the future. I’m still amazed by how much Bruce Sterling’s Islands in the Net got right, and it is (actually was) very near-future hard science. But most of the time, efforts like that are just hilariously wrong.

        Like

      3. Demon Princes sounds like something right up in my alley. The last sci-fi novel I finished was Space Viking a few months ago, and not only did it help reducing my “sci-fi fright” a bit, but it was also inspiring enough to get me started on thinking about a sci-fi campaign again. Its setting is perfectly suited for sandbox play.

        Like

      4. [Demon Princes]

        Definetely in my top 10, maybe even my top 5, alongside such works as Dune, Hyperion, Lord of Light, The Affirmation, Ender’s Game, The Forever War, Blindsight, The Golden Oecumene trilogy, The Fifth Cerberus and probably Anathem. Jack Vance is a brilliant writer and almost never disappointing (except for Lurulu, which was a little shit for Vance but still alright).

        [Space Viking]

        Space Viking is a cool concept of a post-collapse galactic empire but I don’t remember much about the characters, I remember a lot of collapsium spheres firing atomic blaster beams though, so it can’t have been boring. It had kickass names for stellar clusters though. The Sword Worlds. Heh.

        Like

    1. I must point out for clarification that the person I am not responding too is not, in fact, Kevin Crawford (though never having met Kevin Crawford in person I cannot entirely be sure he isn’t).

      Like

    2. Speaking as the real Kevin Crawford, the poster above is just a standard-issue troll. Confirmation, if needed, can be had at the Sine Nomine Publishing gmail address.

      Like

      1. Yeah sorry that had to be your first experience with this blog, the poster above is a friend of mine and just tried to get a rise out of me. I simply had not expected anyone to take it seriously. Most of the people here are fans of your work and I definitely count myself among them. I think you are a class act. Keep up the good work!

        Like

    3. Yeah, way to make me think the real Kevin Crawford had beef, you idiot. Should have known. It was Edgewise’s “verification” that fucked up my perspective. Why, dude?

      Anyways, don’t believe the FAKE NEWS!!!

      Like

      1. Sorry, FAKE NEWS is my middle name…can’t help myself. I apologize to Venger Satanis and Kevin Crawford for my lies. That was a sentence I never expected to type.

        Like

      2. What a fun little situation ;-P

        From what I ‘ve seen and heard abour Mr. Crawford he is a real class act.
        Writes damn good games, always courteous and nice to his fans and critics alike and not entangled in any shitstorms, outrages or petty little dramas … at least until now 😉

        Like

  5. I think a little grain of salt when traversing the internet is a good thing. Would I really have played SWN with Kevin Crawford and would Kevin Crawford, a man of exemplary online conduct, really come down to this tiny blog and berate me for what will most likely be a very positive review, if not a gushing love letter? The tag is also the same as Bluemenbestmen, who comments here frequently.

    Like

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s